Final Assignment

The following link is the response of question four: Compare two publishing technology.



100 Eyes Blog, (2011), ‘Daniel Morel Sued by AFP for Aggressive Assertion of rights’,, accessed 2nd June, 2011


Abigail J. Sellen and Richard H. R. Harper, The Myth of the Paperless Office (Cambridge, Mass.: MIT Press, 2002; reprint, 2003


Caple, Helen, (2010) ‘What you see and what you get: the evolving role of news photographs in an Australian broadsheet’. In V. Rupar (Ed.). Journalism & Meaning-making: Reading the Newspaper, 199-220. Cresskill, N.J.: Hampton Press.


Laurent, Olivier, (2011a), ‘AFP v. Morel: How will photographers benefit?’ 10th January, 2011,, accessed 31st May, 2011


Laurent, Olivier, (2011b), ‘Magnum photographer publishes book on iPad’, British Journal of Photography Online, 1st April, 2011,, accessed 31st May, 2011


Powers, William, (2006) ‘Why Paper is Eternal’ Joan Shorenstein Center on the Press, Politics and Public Policy,  accessed 3rd June, 2011


Vega, Pablo Corral, (2011) ‘An Abundance of Images: Is It Leading to a ‘Trivialization of Photography’?’ Nieman Reports, Vol. 65, No.1, 78-81



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Publishing converges.

Printing press in the 17th century caused the mass-production of books. At that time, bible finally can reach to the majority. People can read and interpreted the meaning, not only from the church.

Printing, mostly on paper. Paper, as the medium for carry ideas, since the printing press invented.

Newspaper and magazines and other publications carry the ideas, comments and inspirations by words and pictures on paper.

During the 19 to 20 century, radio waves was used to communicate. Before WWII, radio broadcast is the major distributor of breaking news . Still, paper is the favorite carrier for publishing. For example,  the Life magazine, which covers world events through photo essays, brought the audience to experience the War through photos. It is the same case as Nation Geographic Magazine which cooperate photos in the report of Tibet in early 20 century.

Radio brings instant event to readers. The news are usually short and easy to digest. The detail magazine articles provide a depth report for readers to investigate. There is no conflict between two media.

That is the case for Internet and newspaper or magazine.

The problem is not the medium, but the content. Internet can keep refresh, corporate with video and other footprint, to bring audience to experience the breaking news. Internet is most suitable for breaking news, which displace in headline form on devices for easily reading.

Paper news media would change focus on ‘quality’ journalism, such as features, reports on current trends. This events, places or people may not have an immediate impact on out society, yet, the coverage provides a link for the topic to readers. In paper form, readers can enjoy when leisure. For example, the Monocle published two ‘newspapers’ in summer and winter, to allow the readers to enjoy it at the beaches and snow mountains. If you are reading in digital devices, you may afraid running out of battery, sun reflective and thief.

I am not saying that quality journalism is not suitable or available in paper form. The industry still adapting the change. For example, Al Gore’s books, Our Choice, is not in paper form. It is not simply turn text on paper into words screen. It is an anagram of text, images and video. More important, it can be updated.

The platform is there. Digital is expandable, boundary-ness. Yet print is reliable, easy to read and take notes. The new model of future quality journalism may be have a monthly print media, an online daily update plus internet archive including video and audio footage of the print section.



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Modes of Publishing

Books and magazines are my favorite modes of publishing. At least in the past 22 years of life.

I subscribe to magazines. When receiving the latest copy and read it voraciously is the happiest moment I have. The smell of the freshly print and the texture of paper forms the reading experience.

Turning a page is the experience you could never have on digital form. You could also write, highlight, dog ear the pages. You could create a ‘personalize’ copy after reading.

I received an iPod Touch at my 22 years old birthday. That change my attitude towards digital publishing.

I neglected e-format because I do not have any readers. But the iPod Touch act as one. I carry my iPod everyday. I used to read magazine on train. Sometimes it is heavy or not up to date. The iPod is small enough to slip into my pocket and carry volumes of publications. The iPod became my media hub. I can take in (through reading, photo-taking and recording), and publish my work if Wi-Fi is available.

The release of the iPad and other E-reader provoke a revolution in publish. Reported by Daily Telegraph, sales of Kindle ebooks had overtaken hardback sales in the UK in May 2011.

E-reader provides interactive between the readers. For example, the Amazon has the ‘most highlight passage’ record, which is collected from the Kindle. The record can use as book promotion and interpretation  for the social trend.

E-books are a multimedia platform. Compare to print on paper, which consist of only text and photos. Only the colour of the photos, font size, or page layout can be accommodate for the content. However, E-books are limitless. They converge text, photos and videos. Even provide interaction between readers.

The limitation of E-book is the reader itself. The iPad, iPhone or ipod touch is capable to do the colourful, animated E-book, due to the superb display, software and memory support.  Compare with the Kindle, it only displays grey-scale image or text.

One of the recently success of E-Book is Al-Gore’s Our Choice. It is the squeal of the famous Inconvenient Truth. The difference is Our Choice is not only a book, instead, it is a combination of video, photos and text. Guiding readers towards what the author’s wants to. Since the videos and photos are more attractive than words.

One of the creator  of book even consider this is not a book, but a new form of publishing. It can be updated and expanded through internet.

I still love my magazines, hard backs and paper backs. Most of the time they will sit on the shelves. The internet, combines with the devices, forms ubiquitous networks. I would buy books sometimes, but will connect to the latest news via the internet.


Push Pop Press Home Page

Richmond, Shane (2011a), ‘Al Gore joins ex-Apple engineers to reinvent the e-book’, 1st May, accessed 26th May, 2011

Richmond, Shane (2011b), ‘Are book apps the next chapter for ebooks?’ , 26th May, accessed 26th May, 2011

Ted Talks, (2011) ‘Mike Matas: A next-generation digital book’,

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Week 11

Refer to Gauntlett (2010), you can see him so excited about his new book, Making is Connecting.

Although he had a website, videos and blogs to share his idea, he published a book to explain his thought.

The reason why he published the book, according to Gauntlett, is a more structured, elaborate form of expression.

It is so lucky Gauntlett live in a country allow him to express his thought openly.

In certain countries, especially in Far East, publishing material commenting the ruling party is prohibited.

However, the advance of digital technology brings the freedom of speech.

“A Changing China,” is a collection of essays by 17 of speakers from China Speakers Bureau about how they have seen China change.

The reason not to use a traditional publisher:

  1. There is hard to find a suitable publisher in China. In order to publish successfully, large amount of editing is required. Most importantly, much critical information would not be allowed to discuss.
  2. It takes about a year to materialize the book if publishing by a traditional publisher. They want to essay to be published in book and update.
  3. Book publisher interested in sales volume of the book. Publishers’ primary interest is the business plan, rather than the content. They want the author to promote and distribute the books as much as possible.
  4. Authors only earn a small potion on the profit.

The above points conclude that the value of traditional publisher is not meet the goal of the Bureau. By using digital media to produce and promote, the Bureau believe they are more capable than local bookstores. Therefore they decided self-publishing.

The book is sold on a range of online platform, like When receiving orders, they will print on demand, and then mail to readers. The cost of print on demand is US$7. The book is sold on at US$ 24.99 including shipping. In the book’s first ten months, 800 copies were sold.

Experience on Self-Publishing

The Bureau has learnt several things on self-publishing.

Firstly, anyone can get an ISBN number, publish a book, and distribute it through Amazon and other online stores. Self-publishing is now a huge industry. But to succeed requires a stiff learning curve—and time to devote to details.

Secondly, design the book layout to suit the region. You need to how to calculate the width of the spine, how to embed a bar code, and how to account for the fact that

POD publishing requires an extra margin for the cover art and text.

With the introduction of iPad and other Tablet coming on the market, e-Book market is expanding, and attracts authors to shit to self-publishing in digital form. In early 2010, Amazon raised the pay to author by 70%.

Quote from Richard Nash, a veteran of book publishing:

It shows best-selling authors that there are alternatives—they can hire their own publicists, their own online marketing specialist, a freelance editor, and a distributionservice … If they already have a loyal fan base, will they want 70 percent of $100,000 or 15 percent of $200,000 for a hardcover?


Gauntlett, David (2010) Making is Connecting <>

Tuinstra, Fons (2010), ‘ From Journalism to Self-Publishing Books “Our experience with print-on-demand books offers promising and challenging news” ‘, Nieman Report, Vol. 64, No. 4, 65-66

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12052011 Visualization

This week I would like to displace two images and explain their context. Both images were taken on the same venue, but record on difference medium.

 Img 1

Img 1 is captured on digital medium.

 Img 2

Img 2 is recorded on instant film.

What are image coming from?

Img 1 is captured directly in digital camera. While Img 2 is first capture on film, an analog process, then scanning to convent into digital file to upload.

What is the relationship to their mode of publishing?

Img 1 is a digital image, it can be duplicated as many copies as possible at no cost. If it is taken on a mobile phone, it could be sent to other phone via MMS. The image can also publish via Facebook, Twitter, Flickr instantly. There is huge reach of the photo.

Compare with Img 2, after recording, it expresses in tangible form: a physical photo ejects from the camera. The accessibility is low at the moment the image is form (about 5 minutes for develop). However, simply use scanner to convert the analog medium into digital form and it can be dispatch and share via internet.

What are the function and effects of their being published?

The subject of both image is the car. However:

Img 1 is an ordinarily photos, simply record where is the car, the colour as we see.

Img 2 is not ordinarily. Mainly because the record medium is Instant Photograph. The colour is not the same as our eyes feel. It becomes a form of art. It will become popular at Flickr, Polanoid or other Instant Photography Groups.

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Data Visualization

There are seven visual variables: orientation, colour, texture, value, form, position and size.

Although Wikileaks is a virtual collection of data, yet it is a good example of data visualization. It consists of main raw logs and files. It requires the reader to interpret the content. In addition, the data is not actively collected from Wikileaks, it is provided via anonymous source. The information still need formal journalist to dispatch the news.

Refer to an example of archive,  Spotify, a streaming music share software, is a success. Unlike iTunes where users need to purchase and download the music in order to listen, Spotify offers live streaming for users to listen. This can settle some legal issue. More, users can purchase the piece of music if they like.

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Week 6

Internet makes analog photography alive.

In 2006, Polaroid announced to cease production of the famous instant film. The convenience of digital camera kills Polaroid.

In 2010, a group called The Impossible Project reinvent the film for Polaroid cameras to use. Millions of Polaroid users finally can use the camera again.

Instant photographs have only one copy, which can only show to limited person at one time. This is true in the 1970s, when Polaroid cameras are the most popular.

However, thanks to the technology, we can scan photos, send to friends or upload on internet. Flickr and Polanoid becomes the platform to displace and advertise the new instant photo material. Flickr and Polanoid became an ‘archive’ for us to put the work in.

Recently, Vienna based WestLicht Museum of Photography purchased and saved The International Polaroid Art collection. The collection is the work over 50 years from artist using Polaroid. At artistic level, we have the physical museum to save the work. At amateur level, we have online platform for sharing.

Instant photographs is only only to capture the moment, it is more than niche. Using taking instant pictures seems telling others you are special.

Thanks to the internet, sharing become easier. That idea make Polaroid alive.


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